Flora and Fauna

As the only planet in the entire world that supports life, Earth is home to millions of life forms. The diversity of plant and animal species in the world is known as biological diversity. No matter where we visit, we find different plants, flowers, birds, insects and animals. There are some plants and animals that are found only in a certain area, that is, they cannot be seen in other parts of the country. These plants and animals are known as the flora and fauna of the area.

The flora and fauna of the Una National Park, as an area of protected natural values, abounds in numerous plant and animal species. The configuration of the terrain and the geomorphological structure of the soil, the different altitudes and the diversity of flora are the conditions for a rich miko world that, together with other forms of life, contributes to the richness of the biodiversity of the National Park.



In this area there are numerous rare and endemic species, some of them are: lincura (Gentiana lutea), spotted lincura (gentiana punctata), eelgrass (Leontopodium alpinum Cass), juniper pine (Pinus mugo). Endemic is the Una bellflower (Campanilla unensis), which got its name precisely from the river Una, as well as the Bosnian iris (Iris reichenbachii Heuffel var. Bosniaca), which grows in dry meadows and pastures on carbonate and serpentine rocks with shallow soil. The Bosnian iris is endemic to the central and southeastern Dinarides. Ecological conditions also enabled the development of a large number of diverse plant communities of exceptional value with over 1,900 plant species, which amounts to 52.19% of all species present in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 177 official and 105 potentially medicinal, edible, vitamin and aromatic plant species have been recorded in the area.

The area of ​​the National Park is built by limestone rocks inhabited by characteristic vegetation adapted to the special conditions of such characteristic habitats as chasmophytic plants (fissure plants). Beneath the larger rocky hills, under the influence of the hydrosphere and the atmosphere, parts of the rocks roll down the slope, creating local sinkholes. Weedy and ruderal vegetation is associated with all the settlements in that area. The communities of the classes Bidentetea, Artemisete and Chenopodiete are well developed, thanks to the rural way of life, extensive farming and extensive cattle breeding.

Diverse habitats abound with a large number of species and communities. In the area of ​​the National Park, the exact number of taxa and communities cannot be estimated, but we can make a comparison with, for example, Austria, which has about 2,000 species, and the spatially small area of ​​the National Park, by estimation, has more than 1,000. In addition, there are many endemic species and relict – refugial communities, important not only for the narrow area, but also for the overall biological diversity of Europe. Therefore, it is to be expected that a large part of this area will also be included in the ecological network Natura 2000.



The fauna of the Una National Park is perhaps the most diverse in this part of Europe in terms of all its characteristics. Many animals have found their home in the National Park and in this way provided it with a great wealth that is getting bigger and more diverse every day, including various species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians and butterflies.

According to the Law on the Protection of Nature and the Ordinance on the Protection of Certain Species of Mammals, Mammalia (N.N. 31/95), 33 species of mammals in the Una area and the National Park are protected, while 8 species are protected under the Ordinance on Wild Animals. Of the protected mammals, in addition to many endangered and sensitive species of bats, it is necessary to highlight three large beasts, the three largest European predators – the wolf, the lynx and the bear. A large number from the group of beasts – otter, badger, weasel and badger. On the IUCN list of threatened mammals of Europe, there are 17 species in two categories of threat. According to the lists of the Bern Convention, which protects European wild species and natural habitats, 50 species from the National Park area are protected.

Based on the data of observation and study of birds in the wider area of ​​the park, more than 120 species of birds have been recorded, based on literature data and data on the ornitofauna of the wider area, we can expect the number of bird species to exceed 160 species. It is interesting to mention the great grouse, which is quite endangered due to excessive hunting, the black grouse, which is a rather rare and secretive species (often seen in the Doljan area). In the wider area of ​​the park there are 12 species of reptiles from two orders, namely turtles (Chelonia) and scales (Squamata), the following species are also present: the scaly scaly lizard (Algyroides nigropunctatus), the Velebit lizard (Lacerta horvathi) and the mountain yellow circle (Vipera macrops ). According to the Convention on the Protection of European Wild Species and Natural Habitats, 11 species of reptiles are strictly protected. Among the 15 species of fish that are present in the river Una in the area of ​​the park and its tributaries, the most important are brown trout (Salmo trutta) and grayling (Thymallus thymallus). Among the rare species here, we can find a species called pesh (Cottus gobio) as well as the two-striped uklia, a rare and relatively endangered species. Amphibians that live in the calm waters of the plains, overgrown with aquatic plants, relatively deep lakes in hilly and mountain areas are the big green frog (Rana ridibunda) and the salamander (Salamandra salamandra). One of the best indicators of a healthy and balanced ecosystem is the abundance of various types of butterflies, so far 75 species of butterflies have been identified in the park, and the assumption is that this number is over a hundred.